HISTORY OF BURSA
The cradle of civilization Bursa and its environs, one of the corners of Anatolia, have been the scene of settlements since ancient times. It was discovered during the excavations of Ilıpınar Höyük that the civilizations created by the old settlements in the region went back to 7,000 years ago. As a result of the excavations in the mound, BC. A residential area was discovered down to 5200 years ago.
7 km. 2.5 km. to the south, 90 m. 5 m. ”Demirtaş Höyüğü taş is located at the height of the mound. In this mound, there are ceramic pieces belonging to the bowls, cubes and jugs which are usually made in hand and in a small amount in the wheel. These are from the early bronze age and have been preserved in the Early Bronze Age. It is dated to 2500 years.
14 km west of the city, 1 km southwest of Çayırköyü, the dimensions of the ü Çayırköy Höyüğü güney are the same as the Demirtaş Höyük. The ceramic parts found here have gray, red, brown and black colors. A significant portion of the ceramic pieces found was made in hand and very few in the wheel. The earliest finds of the mound were found in the MÖ. It belongs to 2700.
B.C. Founded by the Bithynians and Prussias in the 3rd century, the city’s first name was yn Prusa 3.. The oldest settlements of Bursa and its environs, known as çevres Bitinya Yazılı in the written sources, are in the vicinity of İznik Lake. There are only seven important mounds around the İznik Lake, which are understood to have been established in the stone ages. Among them, Ilıpınar near Orhangazi and its 750 m. Hacılartepe Höyüğü, east of Orhangazi-İznik, Tepecik Höyük in Yeniköy, and Körüstan in the east of İznik Lake;
In the center of İnegöl, the mound of Cumatepe and the Doğutepe Akhisar mound located 3 km to the east indicate the settlements belonging to the prehistoric period. The remains of the Demirtaş Village Mound and the Dorak Village of M. Kemalpaşa and the Tahtalı Village indicate that the Bursa region is an important civilization area of at least five thousand years.
Foundation of Prusa (Bursa)
Bursa region, BC. Until the establishment of the Bithynia state in the 4th century, it lived under the rule of various colonies and countries. According to the famous history of Herodotus, the only city that existed in and around Bursa at that time was Cius / Gemlik. The foundation of the city of Cius. It dates back to the 12th century. Apamea / Mudanya city, BC. It is believed to have been founded in the 10th century. The Apollonia / Gölyazı, which is located on an island on the Lake Uluabat, dates back to the 1st century BC. It is thought to have been established earlier than the 6th century.
In the period of Krezus / Kroisos (561-546 BC), the Bursa region, which was dominated by the Lydians, later became acquainted with Persian / Iranian sovereignty. Bursa region, during these battles, was very destroyed. Dedalses fought against Iran and established an independent Bithynia State in the Bursa region. The son of Dedalses, Botiras, and his son Bas / Byas (378-328 BC) were considered the first king of Bithynia.
B.C. In the 2nd century AD, the ancient Miletopolis was found in Melde Hill near M.Kemalpaşa, in 356 Orion Basilica, Pythos in Sölöz Village, Otroia in Yenişehir, Adriani in Orhaneli, Kremastis in Karacabey, Daskylium in Eşkel, Plai in Çekirge. The ancient cities of Nicaea were founded in Kurşunlu, Brillos and İznik.
Bursa’s city status was increased and the surrounding walls were surrounded by the king of Bithynia I. Prusias (232-192 BC). When Hannibal, the king of Carthage, lost his battle with the Roman emperor, he sought refuge in Prussia I, along with his soldiers. When Hannibal had a great reputation by I. Prusias, he founded the city of Bursa in his honor. The city was therefore called Prusa. The definitive findings of the first settlement near the city center are; It shows 2500 – 2700 years.
The city which was named as Uludağ Bursa (Prusa ad Olympium) in the time of the empire of Prussia I, who was known as the founder of today’s Bursa, was found by a marble woman statue and ostotek.
In the time of Emperor Justinianus (527-565), new baths were built in Pythia (Çekirge). In 1935, vaulted rooms were found in Hisar. The basement mosaic of the early Byzantine period found in Yer Kapi in the fortification is one of the important archaeological remains. There is a chapel from the Byzantine period and mosaics from the monastery in Tophane.
Prusa (Bursa) between 1204-1261 Nikaia (Iznik) as a defiant living according to the arasındae was a defiant.
B.C. The kingdom of Bithynia remained in Rome for 74 years. Bursa and its environs, which first existed as a province of the Romans and then of the Byzantines, were even known as the Bithynia Principality or Kingdom by foreign sources even during the period of the Ottoman Principality.
Today, the richest Byzantine period burial steles and various architectural pieces, ceramics and coins are exhibited in Bursa Archeology Museum.
Bursa, during the first 200 years of the Ottoman Empire, showed great improvements compared to other cities and was decorated with many architectural structures; has become the center of science with the well-known madrasas of its time. Hüdavendi, beginning from the time of Murad I